Petrochemistry and Petrochemicals
Petrochemicals are chemical products developed from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, and renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane. The most common petrochemicals are olefins and aromatics (including benzene, toluene and xylene isomers), Synthesis gas. Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by method of fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by a steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by a process of catalytic reforming of naphtha. Petroleum refining processes are nothing, but chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refineries to change crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. Each refinery has its own specific arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery places, desired products and economic considerations.